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exercises:2016_ethz_mmm:mo_ethene [2016/02/03 09:54] (current)
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 +======= Molecular orbitals of Ethene =======
 +In this exercise, you will perform an electronic structure calculation to obtain the ethene molecular orbitals (MOs). If performed correctly, your calculations will produce a list of occupied and non occupied MOs and a series of *.cube files, that allow the visualization of the oribital with VMD. 
  
 +===== 1. Step: Run the calculation =====
 +Run a calculation with the following (commented) input file. \\
 +Note that the file contains explicit basis sets and potential for all-electron calculations. An explanation of the basis set formats is given here: [[basis_sets|Basis Sets]]
 +
 +<code - ethene.inp >
 +&GLOBAL
 +  PROJECT ethene
 +  RUN_TYPE ENERGY
 +  PRINT_LEVEL MEDIUM
 +&END GLOBAL
 +
 +&​FORCE_EVAL
 +  METHOD Quickstep ​             ! Electronic structure method (DFT,...)
 +  &DFT
 +    &PRINT
 +      &​MO_CUBES ​                ! Controls which MOs are written to cube-files.
 +        NHOMO 5
 +        NLUMO 5
 +      &END MO_CUBES
 +      &​PDOS ​                    ! Controls which MOs are included in the pdos-files.
 +         NLUMO 5
 +      &END
 +    &END PRINT
 +    &​POISSON ​                   ! Solver requested for non periodic calculations
 +      PERIODIC NONE
 +      PSOLVER ​ WAVELET ​         ! Type of solver
 +    &END POISSON
 +    &​QS ​                        ! Parameters needed to set up the Quickstep framework
 +      METHOD GAPW               ! Method: gaussian and augmented plane waves 
 +    &END QS
 +
 +    &​SCF ​                       ! Parameters controlling the convergence of the scf. This section should not be changed. ​
 +      MAX_ITER_LUMOS 10000
 +      EPS_SCF 1.0E-6
 +      SCF_GUESS ATOMIC
 +      MAX_SCF 60
 +      EPS_LUMOS ​ 0.000001
 +      &​OUTER_SCF
 +        EPS_SCF 1.0E-6
 +        MAX_SCF 6
 +      &END
 +    &END SCF
 +
 +    &​XC ​                       ! Parametes needed to compute the electronic exchange potential ​
 +      &​XC_FUNCTIONAL NONE      ! No xc functional
 +      &END XC_FUNCTIONAL
 +      &​HF ​                     ! Hartree Fock exchange. In this case is 100% (no fraction specified). ​  
 +        &​SCREENING ​            ! Screening of the electronic repulsion up to the given threshold. ​              
 +          EPS_SCHWARZ 1.0E-10 ​ ! Threshold specification
 +        &END SCREENING
 +      &END HF
 +    &END XC
 +  &END DFT
 +
 +  &SUBSYS
 +    &CELL
 +      ABC 10 10 10
 +      PERIODIC NONE              ! Non periodic calculations. That's why the POISSON scetion is needed ​
 +    &END CELL
 +    &​TOPOLOGY ​                   ! Section used to center the atomic coordinates in the given box. Useful for big molecules
 +      &​CENTER_COORDINATES
 +      &END
 +    &END
 +    &COORD
 +    C         ​-2.15324 ​       3.98235 ​       0.00126
 +    C         ​-0.83403 ​       4.16252 ​      ​-0.00140
 +    H         ​-0.25355 ​       3.95641 ​       0.89185
 +    H         ​-0.33362 ​       4.51626 ​      ​-0.89682
 +    H         ​-2.65364 ​       3.62861 ​       0.89669
 +    H         ​-2.73371 ​       4.18846 ​      ​-0.89198
 +    &END COORD
 +    &KIND H                    ! Basis set and potential for H
 +     &​BASIS
 +  2
 +  1  0  0  3  1
 +         ​18.73113700 ​         0.03349460
 +          2.82539370 ​         0.23472695
 +          0.64012170 ​         0.81375733
 +  1  0  0  1  1
 +          0.16127780 ​         1.00000000
 +     &​END
 +     ​POTENTIAL ALL
 +     &​POTENTIAL
 +     ​1 ​   0    0
 +     ​0.20000000 ​   0
 +     &​END
 +    &END KIND
 +    &KIND C                    ! Basis set and potential for C
 +     &​BASIS
 +  4
 +  1  0  0  6  1
 +       ​3047.52490000 ​         0.00183470
 +        457.36951000 ​         0.01403730
 +        103.94869000 ​         0.06884260
 +         ​29.21015500 ​         0.23218440
 +          9.28666300 ​         0.46794130
 +          3.16392700 ​         0.36231200
 +  1  0  1  3  1  1
 +          7.86827240 ​        ​-0.11933240 ​         0.06899910
 +          1.88128850 ​        ​-0.16085420 ​         0.31642400
 +          0.54424930 ​         1.14345640 ​         0.74430830
 +  1  0  1  1  1  1
 +          0.16871440 ​         1.00000000 ​         1.00000000
 +  1  2  2  1  1
 +          0.80000000 ​         1.00000000
 +     &​END
 +     ​POTENTIAL ALL
 +     &​POTENTIAL
 +     ​4 ​   2    0
 +     ​0.34883045 ​   0   
 +     &​END
 +    &END KIND
 +  &END SUBSYS
 +&END FORCE_EVAL
 +</​code>​
 +
 +
 +===== 2. Step =====
 +
 +If the calculation was performed correctly, a number of new files should have been written:
 +<​code>​
 +$ ls *.pdos *.cube
 +ethene-k1-1.pdos ​ ethene-WFN_00004_1-1_0.cube ​ ethene-WFN_00006_1-1_0.cube ​ ethene-WFN_00008_1-1_0.cube ​ ethene-WFN_00010_1-1_0.cube ​ ethene-WFN_00012_1-1_0.cube
 +ethene-k2-1.pdos ​ ethene-WFN_00005_1-1_0.cube ​ ethene-WFN_00007_1-1_0.cube ​ ethene-WFN_00009_1-1_0.cube ​ ethene-WFN_00011_1-1_0.cube ​ ethene-WFN_00013_1-1_0.cube
 +</​code>​
 +
 +First have a look at the *.pdos files. PDOS stands for Projected Density of States. These files list the energies and occupation of the MOs. Furthermore,​ they show how the MOs are compose from basis-functions of different atoms (one pdos-file for each atomic kind) and angular momentum (s,p,d). Hence, these numbers always sum up to 1.0.
 +
 +===== 3. Step =====
 +
 +Now look at the *.cube files. ​
 +Each cube-file contains the electronic density of one MO mapped onto a regular 3D-grid. Not all MOs were written to a cube-file, this is controlled by the PRINT_MO section. Their filenames tell you to which MO a cube-file belongs. For example ''​ethene-WFN_00005_1-1_0.cube''​ contains the 5th orbital.
 +
 +Use VMD to visualize the cube-files:
 +  - To run ''​vmd ethene-WFN_00008_1-1_0.cube''​
 +  - To visualize the molecule (sometimes it's not visible by default):​\\ ​   **Graphics > Representations > Draw style > Drawing Method=CPK**
 +  - Add a second representation by clicking on **Create Rep**
 +  - In this second representation set **Drawing Method=Isosurfaces** and **Draw=Wireframe**
 +  - Finally set the **Isovalue** of to a reasonable value, eg. 0.1 .
 +  - To visualize the positive and the negative part of an orbital simultaneously,​ you will have to add a third representation with a negative **Isovalue**,​ e.g. -0.1 .
 +  - To give the two representations different colors, set their **Coloring Method=ColorID** and choose different ids.
 +
 +What you get should look similar to this:
 +{{ ethene_pi_orbital.png |}}
 +
 +===== Questions =====
 +  - Quickly sketch the energy distribution of the MOs.
 +  - What's the energy of the HOMO, LUMO, and the band-gap?
 +  - Use VMD to identify the shape and energy of the $\pi$ and $\pi^*$ orbitals. ​
 +  ​
exercises/2016_ethz_mmm/mo_ethene.txt ยท Last modified: 2016/02/03 09:54 (external edit)