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exercises:2020_uzh_acpc2:login

First Login

In this exercise you will learn how to login and run commands on our infrastructure.

Part I: Login

Required software

As mentioned in the lecture, you absolutely need a terminal emulator:

  • on Linux: this can be one of programs Konsole, Gnome Terminal, Terminal, XTerm, …
  • on Mac OS X/OSX/macOS Sierra: use the pre-installed Terminal application, iTerm2 or the X-Windows terminal from XQuartz (see instructions below)
  • on Windows: use Putty

optionally you may want:

  • a X11-Server, to be able to start graphical applications on the server and have the output on your computer:
    • on Linux: it is enough to be logged-in in a graphical environment (Unity, Gnome, KDE, …)
    • on Mac OS X/OSX/macOS Sierra: you need to install XQuartz
    • on Microsoft Windows: you need to install VcXsrv
  • a file transfer tool to copy files from/to the server:
    • on Linux: put sftp://tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch as the address in your file browser and you should be able to browse your home directory after logging in
    • on Mac OS X/OSX/macOS Sierra: use Cyberduck
    • one Windows: use WinSCP or Cyberduck
  • a plain text editor to edit input files if you are uncomfortable with using vim, nano or emacs via SSH. Please note: It is important that your editor supports Unix line endings. If in doubt, use one of the mentioned editors on the server, or an advanced plain text editor like Atom (plus the line-ending-selector-unix plugin) or Notepad++ on your local machine.

Login using Linux

  • Connect to Internet (use VPN when not on the UZH network)
  • Open a terminal (Konsole, xterm or similar)
  • Connect to the server by entering the command: ssh -X studentXX@tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch

Login using macOS

  • Connect to Internet (use VPN when not on the UZH network)
  • Open a X-Windows terminal in the X11 application if you want to run graphical applications on the server, otherwise use the pre-installed Terminal application or an alternative like iTerm2
  • Connect to the server by entering the command: ssh -X studentXX@tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch

Login using Windows with SSH (Windows 10 and later)

  • Connect to Internet (use VPN when not in the UZH network)
  • Start VcXsrv (optional, only required if you want to run graphical applications on the server)
  • Start the Powershell console
  • Type the command ssh studentXY@tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch
  • Enter (username and) password as requested

Login using Windows with Putty

First configure Putty (only required on the first run) as follows:

  1. Start the application PuTTY from the Windows menu (in the folder PuTTY)
  2. Fill in the Host Name: tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch
  3. Set Connection type to SSH
  4. Type tcopt2 as the name of the session below Saved Sessions and save the settings a first time
  5. In the Category tree on the left side, select Connection > Data and enter the username you have been given in the lecture in the field Auto-login username
  6. Select the tab Connection > SSH > X11 from the Category list and enable the option Enable X11 Forwarding
  7. Go to Session again and
  8. Choose Session from the Category list and click Save again

Then continue as follows to login:

  • Connect to Internet (use VPN when not on the UZH network)
  • Start VcXsrv (optional, only required if you want to run graphical applications on the server)
  • Start Putty
  • Double click the session tcopt2 to start the connection
  • Enter (username and) password as requested

First steps

Change the password of your account after your first login, using:
$ passwd

Part II: Advanced account configuration

Setup key-based authentication

To avoid having to type the password every time you log in (and to increase the security), a public-private key pair can be used for authentication instead.

Instructions for macOS and Linux

First generate a key-pair on your local machine by running the following in a terminal/shell:

$ ssh-keygen

and accept the defaults proposed and do no set a password.

Upload the public key from your local machine to tcopt2:

$ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub studentXX@tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch:~/

Now login to tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch and move the uploaded public key to the right place and set the access permissions correct:

$ mkdir -p .ssh
$ chmod 0700 .ssh
$ mv id_rsa.pub .ssh/authorized_keys

When connecting to the server from your local machine now, use:

$ ssh -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa studentXX@tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch

Instructions for Windows using PuTTY

First login to the server as above and leave the terminal window open.

Then generate a key-pair on your local machine as follows:

  1. Start the application PuTTYgen which was installed alongside PuTTY itself
  2. Click on Generate to generate a new key (move the mouse to generate randomness, as instructed)
  3. Do not set a Key passphrase
  4. Click on Save private key and store the private key as condensed_matter.ppk
  5. On the server (in the PuTTY terminal window), run the following commands:
    $ mkdir -p .ssh
    $ chmod 0700 .ssh
    $ nano -w .ssh/authorized_keys
    
  1. Now copy & paste the content in the field Public key for pasting into OpenSSH authorized_keys file from PuTTYgen into the terminal. Pasting in PuTTY is done by a right mouse click.
  2. Exit nano by using CTRL+X, press Y to save the file and confirm the name by pressing ENTER
  3. Enter exit to close the connection
  4. Close the PuTTYgen application

Reconfigure PuTTY to use the generate key:

  1. Restart PuTTY
  2. Select the Session tcopt2 and press Load
  3. Select Connection > SSH > Auth
  4. Use the Browse… button in Authentication parameters to selected the condensed_matter.ppk you generated earlier
  5. Go back to Session and click Save, then Open to login
  6. Now PuTTY should directly login (given that you have saved the username as well as described above) without asking for a password

Simplify the login

The following instructions apply to OSX and Linux.

On your local machine add the following part to the file .ssh/config in your home directory:

Host tcopt2
  HostName tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch
  User studentXX

after which you will be able to connect to tcopt2 simply by using

$ ssh tcopt2

If you have setup key-based authentication as shown above, augment the entry to the following instead, to always use key-based authentication without having to specify -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa manually:

Host tcopt2
  HostName tcopt2.chem.uzh.ch
  User studentXX
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa
  IdentitiesOnly yes
  PreferredAuthentications publickey
exercises/2020_uzh_acpc2/login.txt · Last modified: 2020/04/07 08:55 by jglan